The Euratom Supply Agency
International Development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR)
Computer Analyses in Hydrogen Safety Management
Non-destructive Testing of Drums with Radioactive Waste
NPP 2014 atw Compact Statistics
“Climate change is a global problem and the EU needs to explain to its citizens that without nuclear it will not be possible to meet emissions reduction targets.” Andrei Rozhdestvin, Director of Rosatom France, talks to NucNet about new nuclear power plants in Europe, lifetime extension, EU’s climate targets, the role of nuclear power to achieve these targets, the opportunities for Rosatom in Europe and the perspectives of the EU’s Energy Union project.
In the 1950s, when the European Communities were founded the ECSC (Treaty establishing the European Coal & Steel Community), concluded for 50 years and the EURATOM Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community), with unlimited validity, were signed. On the present political agenda of the European Union, energy supply security has a high priority. The Juncker Commission therefore focusses on the concept of an Energy Union. The Euratom Treaty provides one successful example of a “small sectorial Energy Union” and may serve as stimulation for reflections for the Energy Union in other sectors.
The German Federal Government intends to pass a sector-specific act for eternity liability for companies of the nuclear sector. The “Act for Subsequent Liability for Decommissioning and Disposal Costs for the Nuclear Sector” should establish a sector-specific special liability act. The intended act is not only unconstitutional it also does not give a real contribution to solving the task of final disposal. Despite decades of collecting of amount for a repository, the Federal State’s duty to provide a final disposal hitherto is not fulfilled.
Sebastian Buchholz, Anne Krüssenberg and Andreas Schaffrath
The abbreviation SMR stands for Small Modular Reactor and describes reactors with low power output. One reactor module, composed of primary, secondary and, where necessary, intermediate circuit and auxiliary systems, may be transported to the construction site as a whole or in few parts only and can therefore be connected quickly to the grid. Various modules can form a larger nuclear power plant and additional modules may be added one by one, while the others are in operation. Designers develop SMR for the deployment mainly in remote, sparsely populated areas or near cities respectively. SMR may provide in both cases electricity, district heating and potable water.
After the Fukushima accident, the safety margins analysis under the EU stress tests has been extensively introduced in the European regulatory framework. In Switzerland, in a follow-up project to the EU stress tests, existing safety margins for the mitigation of design basis accidents have been investigated in more detail. The ENSI (Eidgenössische Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat/Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate) has committed the objectives and constraints for the definitions and framework of the safety margin analysis for this follow-up project.
Ed M.J. Komen, Dirk C. Visser, Ferry Roelofs and Jos G.T Te Lintelo
The risks of hydrogen release and combustion during a severe accident in a light water reactor have attracted considerable attention after the Fukushima accident in Japan. Reliable computer analyses are needed for the optimal design of hydrogen mitigation systems. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development, validation, and application of more detailed, three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for hydrogen safety analyses. The validation status and reliability of CFD code simulations will be illustrated by validation analyses performed for experiments executed in the PANDA, THAI, and ENACCEF facilities.
Marina Sokcic-Kostic and Roland Schultheis
For the deposition of radioactive waste into interim or final storages a great amount of drums, filled with radioactive material, has to be radiological characterized. To master this task measurement systems are required which are working autonomic and non-destructively. The monitors measure the emitted gamma or neutron radiation. Concepts for the measurement methods as well as realized monitors are presented. Finally future development trends are presented and pending open questions are discussed.
Andreas Schaffrath and Martina Scheuerer; Carina Önneby and Ulf Benjaminsson
Summary report on the Topical Sessions “CFD Simulations for Reactor Safety Relevant Objectives “ and “Fuel Management During the Last Cycles and Beyond” of the 46th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 to 10 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.
At the end of the last year 2014 (key date: 31 December 2014), nuclear power plants were operating in 31 countries worldwide. In total, 441 nuclear power plants were operating on the key date. This means that the number increased by 5 units compared to the previous year’s number on 31 December 2013. The gross power output of these nuclear power plant units1 amounted to around 405 GWe, the net power output was approximately 383 GWe. 66 plants in 15 countries were under construction. In addition, there are about 120 units in an advanced planning stage worldwide.
Klaus B. Stadie
The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as “Nuclear Energy Agency”, almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.
By the time this article is published, an historic development may well have taken place that has the potential to change the dynamics of the world’s nuclear energy industry for generations to come: The first construction contract in the West of Chinese-designed nuclear power plants. If the agreement goes ahead, a site adjacent to the closed Bradwell nuclear plant on the east coast of England could eventually be home to Chinese reactor technology. If China does develop its first Western nuclear plant in the UK it will be a bold and exciting move for both countries.