atw - November 2016

Social Responsible Communication with Stakeholders
Shield Design of a PWR Reactor
Nuclear Waste Management USA Western Europe
Modelling Cladding Response to Changing Conditions
Future of Nuclear Energy in Europe

Putin Lends a Hand as Rosatom Goes on International Offensive

NucNet

When Russian president Vladimir Putin played host at the recent Russia-ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) summit in Sochi, where he hosted leaders of all 10 ASEAN countries, he took the opportunity to do some lobbying for state-owned nuclear corporation Rosatom, telling southeast Asian countries there that it was time to go nuclear. Rosatom sees the region as a source of potentially significant orders. Agreements recently signed typically set out plans to cooperate in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants and research reactors.

Social Responsible Communication of Nuclear Power Plant with External Stakeholders

Milan Simončič and Gordana Žurga

Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krško NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.

Brexit means Brexit: Also a British Withdrawal of the EURATOM Treaty?

Ulrike Feldmann

In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

Tobias Leidinger

On the basis of the nuclear power phase out in Germany in 2011, three nuclear power plant operators (E.ON, RWE and Vattenfall) submitted constitutional complaints to the Federal Constitutional Court. In parallel, Vattenfall, a Swedish state-owned company, took a second legal option: An investment protection arbitration procedure against Germany was initiated on the basis of the “Energiecharta” contract. A negotiation took place in October 2016. Critics notice that this would provide a foreign company with a special legal action. They want to derive consequences for the content and conclusion of further trade agreements (for example, TTIP).

Monte Carlo Based Radial Shield Design of Typical PWR reactor

Anas Gul, Rustam Khan, Ayub Qureshi, Muhammad Waqar Azeem, S. A. Raza and Thomas Stummer

Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

A World’s Dilemma Upon Which the Sun Never Sets – The Nuclear Waste Management Strategy: Western European Nation States and the United States of America - Part I of III

Mark Callis Sanders and Charlotta E. Sanders

The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and nuclear wastes demands a strategy to provide for the safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities. Nation states have taken different paths to nuclear waste management and are at various stages of the development of a nuclear waste management strategy. A strategy may include developing a geological repository, nuclear fuel reprocessing, interim storage, as well as discussions of the creation of a multinational storage facility. The paper provides an overview of the strategy used (or being developed) and its place within the legal framework. The paper concludes that though each nation state must look outward to its shared international obligations, there must also be an inward reflection of a nation state to its own traditions, customs, and legal/law making regimes.

Evolution of Spent Fuel Dry Storage

Paul Nicholas Standring and Ferenc Takats

Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

Working Group Development of Scenarios: Position Paper: Requirements for the Method to Derive Scenarios for a Radioactive Waste Disposal

Thomas Beuth

The safe containment of radioactive waste in a disposal system has to be proven in the Safety Case. It is a prerequisite to know how the disposal system will develop over time. Safety relevant scenarios will be derived in the so called scenario development. The question arises of what would be the requirements and assets of a universal method that can be applied in the different phases of the site selection process as well as for different sites, host rocks, and safety and disposal concepts for the development of scenarios. To answer this question, a set of requirements were identified which focus on one hand on properties/performance and on the other hand on quality characteristics/quality evaluation of an appropriate method.

Modelling Cladding Response to Changing Conditions

Ville Tulkki and Timo Ikonen

The cladding of the nuclear fuel is subjected to varying conditions during fuel reactor life. Load drops and reversals can be modelled by taking cladding viscoelastic behaviour into account. Viscoelastic contribution to the deformation of metals is usually considered small enough to be ignored, and in many applications it merely contributes to the primary part of the creep curve. With nuclear fuel cladding the high temperature and irradiation as well as the need to analyse the variable load all emphasise the need to also inspect the viscoelasticity of the cladding.

Two-phase Mixture Simulation of Al²O³/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Non-uniform Heat Addition Test Section

Yasser Abbassi and Amir Saeed Shirani

Results of a numerical investigation of Al2O3/Water nanofluid heat transfer are presented. The two-phase mixture model is used to study the effects of Reynolds number and nanoparticle concentrations on nanofluid heat transfer in flow around an annulus test section. Non-uniform heat flux is assumed as heat boundary condition on annuli inner wall. Annuli wall and bulk temperature profiles, Local and averaged heat transfer coefficient profiles, local and averaged Nusselt number profiles are presented as functions of nanoparticle volume concentrations and Reynolds numbers. Both laminar and turbulent flow regimes are simulated.

AMNT 2016 Key Topic: Outstanding Know-How & Sustainable Innovations

Winfried Zwermann

Summary report on the Key Topic “Outstanding Know-How & Sustainable Innovations” Technical Session “Reactor Physics, Thermo, and Fluid Dynamics” of the 47th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

Europe Needs to Take Clear, Analytical Approach in Considering Future of Nuclear Energy

John Shepherd

Europe’s political leaders have been accused of failing to offer a clear and comprehensive approach to the future of nuclear power in Europe. The criticism came in an opinion adopted recently by the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). According to the EESC, the European Commission should propose “a clear analytical process and methodology which can offer a consistent, voluntary framework for national decision-making about the role – if any – of nuclear power in the energy mix”.

 

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