atw - January 2017

Nuclear Energy and Economic Growth
The Anti-Nuclear Referendum in Switzerland 2016
Deep Boreholes for Disposal of HLRW
Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion with COCOSYS

How UK is Preparing for Major Push Towards World’s First SMR

NucNet

The UK Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy is finalising a roadmap for the development of SMRs in the UK in parallel with the first phase of the competition. The roadmap will be published early in 2017, although whether it will be affected by the change in personnel at the top of government following the June 2016 vote for Brexit remains to be seen. The UK seems to be taking a lead in the development of SMRs. In its 2015 autumn budget statement, the government announced it would invest £ 250 m in an “ambitious nuclear research and development programme”, including in the SMR competition.

The 4th Nuclear Power Plant in Argentina

Mauro Nogarin

Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP- 1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

Energy Consumption and Economic Growth on the Focus on Nuclear Energy

Filiz Ozkan, Ali Osman Pektas und Omer Ozkan

Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

A Decision for Security of Supply and Climate Friendly Power Production

Hans-Ulrich Bigler

On 27 November 2016, the Swiss people voted on the 2016 nuclear phase-out referendum. The majority of the voters were, as in the case of previous anti-nuclear movements, pragmatic and nuclear-friendly. The clear rejection of the demanded overhasty nuclear phase-out is also a vote of confidence by the Swiss voters in the nuclear power plants and their operators. After the vote, the focus now is on the basic conditions and future for the domestic electricity production.

The Judgement of the Federal Constitutional Court on the Nuclear Phase-out in Germany: Every Light hat its Shadow

Tobias Leidinger

The 13th amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was a direct result of the accident in Fukushima in March 2011. As a result, not only the provisional (three-month) shutdown of the eight nuclear power plants immediately shut down after the accident finally passed the parliament, but fixed shutdown times were also decided for the remaining nine NPP’s. This was both an increase of the AtG amendment of 2002 and the extension of the NPP licenses decided a few months earlier. Nuclear energy should therefore continue to serve as a “bridge technology” within the framework of the Federal Government’s energy concept for a longer period. On 6 December 2016 the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) has decided that the act on the accelerated phasing-out of nuclear energy in Germany is partly unconstitutional. The judgment is clear on a whole series of legal issues. At the same time, it raises new questions with a view to the final clarification of the compensation.

Development of a New Methodology for Quantifying Nuclear Safety Culture

Kiyoon Han and Moosung Jae

The present study developed a Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) which consists of a safety culture assessment methodology and a safety culture impact quantification methodology. The SCIAM uses a safety culture impact index (SCII) to monitor the status of safety culture of NPPs periodically and it uses relative core damage frequency (RCDF) to present the impact of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. As a result of applying the SCIAM to the reference plant (Kori 3), the standard for the healthy safety culture of the reference plant is suggested. SCIAM might contribute to improve the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) by monitoring the status of safety culture periodically and presenting the standard of healthy safety culture.

A World’s Dilemma ‘Upon Which the Sun Never Sets’ – The Nuclear Waste Management Strategy: Western European Nation States and the United States of America – Part III of III

Mark Callis Sanders and Charlotta E. Sanders

The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and nuclear wastes demands a strategy to provide for the safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities. Nation states have taken different paths to nuclear waste management and are at various stages of the development of a nuclear waste management strategy. A strategy may include developing a geological repository, nuclear fuel reprocessing, interim storage, as well as discussions of the creation of a multinational storage facility. The paper provides an overview of the strategy used (or being developed) and its place within the legal framework. The paper concludes that though each nation state must look outward to its shared international obligations, there must also be an inward reflection of a nation state to its own traditions, customs, and legal/law making regimes.

Does Deep Borehole Disposal of HLRW has a Chance in Germany?

Guido Bracke, Frank Charlier, Axel Liebscher, Frank Schilling and Thomas Röckel

Using deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) can take advantage of multiple geologic barriers as safety features. The great depth efficiently prolongs or hinders radionuclide transport and also impedes proliferation. The number of boreholes could be less than 100 for the volume of HLRW in Germany. Using a simplified, generic safety concept minimum requirements for the diameter of boreholes and containers are derived. Furthermore the operational safety of emplacement, retrieval of waste and sealing of the boreholes is considered. This concept is assessed for its compliance with the safety requirements of the BMUB and the requirements and criteria for site selection defined by the commission “Storage of high-level radioactive waste”.

Thermal Margin Comparison Between DAM and Simple Model

Jeonghun Cha and Daesik Yook

The nuclear industry in Korea, has considered using a detail analysis model (DAM), which described each rod, to get more thermal margin with the design a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel (NSF). A DAM is proposed and a thermal analysis to determine the cladding integrity is performed using test conditions with a homogenized NSF assembly analysis model(Simple model). The result show that according to USA safety criteria, temperature of canister surface has to keep below 500 K in normal condition and 630 K in excess condition. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) called ANSYS Fluent version 14.5 was used.

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion during Spray Operation with COCOSYS

Tobias Jankowski and Marco K. Koch

The OECD/NEA THAI-2 test HD-33 is simulated with the Containment Code System COCOSYS. The test investigates hydrogen deflagration during spray system operation. Two calculations with different input parameters are performed to show the general capabilities of the deflagration model FRONT. Nevertheless, the experimental flame front propagation is not simulated sufficiently by the ignition of the zones, because of a missing interface between the used spray and combustion model as well as a neglect of spray induced turbulences. Therefore it might be thought about a more mechanistic approach.

Time for Nuclear to be Set Free from Shackles of Political Correctness

John Shepherd

Towards the end of 2016, a milestone report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) set out what were described as the “frontlines for additional emissions reductions” in the global power sector in the years ahead. The tools for continuing efforts to rein in emissions and combat climate change include, according to the IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2016, the “accelerated deployment” of renewables, carbon capture and storage, a “strong push” for greater electrification and efficiency across all end-uses and “a robust and concerted” clean energy research and development effort by governments and companies. Nuclear power was also included in the publication as one of the ways that countries could reduce emissions harmful to our planet… although the IEA’s report said nuclear’s role would depend on it being “politically acceptable”.

 

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