atw - December 2017

DataBank: Towards a New Scientific Management Methodology
The Cost of SMRs
The Triple Effect of Carbon Dioxide
In-Vessel Phase of Severe Accident Management Strategy for a PWR
Nuclear Investment in Energy-hungry Africa

Westinghouse Calls for Rethink on Europe’s Treatment of Nuclear

NucNet

US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company has called on European Union legislators to adopt a technology-neutral approach when discussing the future of the bloc’s low-carbon energy policies. In its ‘Clean Energy for All Europeans’ legis lative package, released in November 2016, the European Commission made no mention of nuclear energy, said Michael Kirst, Westinghouse’s vice-president of strategy for the Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) region at a media briefi ng in Brussels. He said the package did not offer “a real investment signal” to developers.

The Cost of SMRs: How Rolls Royce Aims to Compete with Wind and Solar

NucNet

The UK nuclear industry is hoping that claims by Rolls-Royce that small modular reactor (SMR) projects could deliver electricity for a similar cost to offshore wind will provide much-needed impetus to government plans for the country to develop a “best value” SMR and put it into commercial operation by the end of the next decade. Rolls-Royce and its consortium partners, including Amec Foster Wheeler, Arup, Laing O’Rourke and Nuvia, say the UK SMR they are developing could produce energy for as low as £ 60 (€ 66, $ 79) per MWh, which is competitive against wind and solar and significantly lower than the £ 92.50 per MWh agreed by the government and project developer EDF for the new Hinkley Point C nuclear station.

DataBank: Towards a New Scientific Management Methodology

N.S. Mahmoud, R.M.A. Lashin and L.Kh. Abdul-Aziz

The main task of the presented management system plan is to control and organize the successful organisation. The achievement of the project shall consider objectives of the organization, strategy, workers and benefits. Various management systems have appeared during the last century; the scientific management approach, administrative theory, systems approach, socio-technical approach, contingency or situational approach, and others. The selection of the management methodology for a scientific organizations in the nuclear sector shall be, in particular, a precise process. That is due to the different objectives of scientific activities performed.

Supercritical Water Natural Circulation Flow Stability Experiment Research

Dongliang Ma, Tao Zhou, Bing Li and Yanping Huang

The Thermal hydraulic characteristics of supercritical water natural circulation plays an important role in the safety of the Generation-IV supercritical water-cooled reactors. Hence it is crucial to conduct the natural circulation heat transfer experiment of supercritical water. The heat transfer characteristics have been studied under different system pressures in the natural circulation systems. Results show that the fluctuations in the subcritical flow rate (for natural circulation) is relatively small, as compared to the supercritical flow rate. By increasing the heating power, it is observed that the amplitude (and time period) of the fluctuation tends to become larger for the natural circulation of supercritical water. This tends to show the presence of flow instability in the supercritical water. It is possible to observe the flow instability phenomenon when the system pressure is suddenly reduced from the supercritical pressure state to the subcritical state. At the test outlet section, the temperature is prone to increase suddenly, whereas the blocking effect may be observed in the inlet section of the experiment.

Consequences for a Completely Decarbonised Energy Supply for Germany

Friedrich Wagner

This paper examines the consequences of the transformation of Germany’s energy supply into electricity from wind power and photovoltaics. The consequences result from the two most important properties – low energy density and volatile production. The analysis is carried out by extrapolating real production data from the period 2010 to 2016, with the first step focusing on the technology change for pure electricity production, and the second on the presentation of the total final energy within the framework of so-called sector coupling. The main results are that renewable energies alone do not allow a strongly reduced final energy consumption to be achieved and that storage facilities have a low system relevance. The recommendation of this work is that Germany should develop and implement a further CO2-free supply.

The Triple Effect of Carbon Dioxide

Eike Roth

Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the atmosphere in three ways: it absorbs radiation and thus adds energy to the atmosphere (heat), it emits radiation and thus dissipates (heat) energy from the atmosphere, both of which are important for the climate on Earth, and the CO2 also has a non-climate effects on life on Earth. In principle, these effects can have considerable consequences if anthropogenic CO2 emissions influence the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This article point out that many questions remain unanswered with regard to the exact size of the individual effects and that the consequences, in some cases, are not yet clear and cannot yet be sufficiently quantified. This would be necessary for responsible decisions, however, and there is an urgent need for action.

Model France: Efficiently achieving climate protection targets – Nuclear power phase-out scenario adapted in favour of climate protection

Tobias Leidinger

In Germany – after an abrupt, legally controversial and in some cases unconstitutional phase-out of nuclear power (“at any price”) – the next phase-out of is now being negotiated among new coalition partners. In France, on the other hand, energy and climate protection seem to be in the clear sense of the word: the French nuclear phase-out scenario is clearly being “stretched out” in order to achieve the promised climate protection targets. Reason seems to have the upper hand in France: instead of “black-and-white scenarios”, one prefers to stick to what is in reality feasible and achievable. In reality, the expansion of renewable energies, the regulation of the transport sector and electricity production from nuclear energy are not opposites, but complement each other in the interests of affordable energy and effective climate protection.

Analysis of the In-Vessel Phase of SAM Strategy for a Korean 1000 MWe PWR

Sung-Min Cho, Seung-Jong Oh and Aya Diab

This paper focuses on the in-vessel phase of Severe Accident Management (SAM) strategy for a Korean 1000 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with reference to ROAAM+ framework approach. To apply ROAAM+, it is needed to identify epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. The selected scenario is a station blackout (SBO) and the corresponding SAM strategy is RCS depressurization followed by water injection into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The analysis considers the depressurization timing and the flow rate and timing of in-vessel injection for scenario variations. For the phenomenological uncertainties, the core melting and relocation process is considered to be the most important phenomenon in the in-vessel phase of SAM strategy. Accordingly, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the impact of the cut-off porosity below which the flow area of a core node is zero (EPSCUT), and the critical temperature for cladding rupture (TCLMAX) on the core melting and relocation process. In this paper, the SAM strategy for maintaining the integrity of RPV is derived after quantification of the scenario and phenomenological uncertainties.

AMNT 2017: Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence: Focus Session: Uncertainty Analyses in Reactor Core SimulationsTechnical Session: Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel

Winfried Zwermann and Thorsten Hollands

Summary report on the Key Topic Enhanced Safety & Operation Excellence: Focus Session: Uncertainty Analyses in Reactor Core Simulations and Technical Session: Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel of the 48th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

Nuclear Vendors See Rising Prospects for Investment in Energy-hungry Africa

John Shepherd

The term ‘Africa rising’ derives from the economic growth witnessed across the continent between 2000 and 2014. However, weakened performance over the past couple of years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), has dented investor confidence and expectations. Nevertheless, the continent remains fertile ground for investment, including nuclear power, and at least two of the world’s major nuclear operators and developers – Russia and and China – are stepping up interest in the region.

 

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