Nuclear Power in a Global Perspective
Ripple Effects of a
New Nuclear Science Site
Reactivity Feedback Coefficients of the Pakistan Research Reactor
Cyber-security and the Nuclear Industry
In October 2015 the UK’s respected Chatham House think-tank published a report that drew some worrying conclusions about the civil nuclear industry. It said many in the sector do not fully understand the risks posed by hackers and the industry needs to be “more robust” on taking the initiative in cyberspace and funding effective responses to the challenge. The industry does not seem to be prepared for a large-scale cyber security emergency and needs to invest in counter-measures and response plans, the report said. It warned that developing countries are “particularly vulnerable” to cyber-attacks at nuclear facilities. The industry should develop guidelines to measure cyber security risk, including an integrated risk assessment that takes both security and safety measures into account. All countries with nuclear facilities should adopt an effective regulatory approach to cyber security e.g. on the basis of IAEA guidance.
Mihail Ceclan and Franck Wastin
The Joint Research Centre of European Commission was designated in 2009 as Operating agent of European Human Resources Observatory – in Nuclear (EHRO-N). EHRO-N identified the nuclear sector’s major challenges: to fill-in the 30 % gap between HR demand and supply in decommissioning and to adapt nuclear E&T system to comply more to the labour market demands. The process of nuclear training system adaptation to the labour market needs is based on the design of the flexible qualifications (unit based qualifications) using European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) principles. The process of ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector is ongoing since 2011 and is based on the strategy and road map developed by EHRO-N. The current paper presents the latest developments on the designing of training programs based on exit outcomes.
Nuclear power is an important source for electricity production in Europe: today 131 reactors are operated in 14 EU Member States, delivering 28 % of the European power and one half of its low-carbon electricity. The turnover of the sector is about 70 billion € and there are about 800,000 high qualified jobs. Worldwide the capacities of nuclear power are extending. New build activities are moving to the Eastern countries. Today, the whole electricity market in Europe is characterised by uncertainties for all investments due to political market interventions. A common European energy policy does not appear to exist.
The Paris-Climate-Agreement came into effect on November 4th 2016. Still, the contradiction in this agreement – ambitious goals and (presumably) inadequate commitments – has persisted. Also in the follow-up conference in Marrakesh, this discrepancy remained unresolved. 2017 the countries will meet again. However, since Donald Trump became president-elect of the United States of America, uncertainty about how the largest economy in the world will act in the future has intensified. This amplifies the pressure to clarify the true level of human influence on the climate in a scientifically consistent manner, as a basis for more reliable decisions. This paper tries to contribute to that effort.
Just a few months ago, the Swiss voters have rejected the initiative of the Green Party to accelerate the nuclear phase-out in Switzerland with an impressive majority. Once again, it becomes clear that in Switzerland on issues of energy policy rationality and not ideology is leading. With their vote against an accelerated nuclear phase-out, the Swiss citizens underlined that they have no sympathy for radical, ideologically proposals for solutions, which on closer inspection are expensive, risky and immature. The majority has understood that the extensive expansion of renewable energies and power grids is burdened with numerous risks and uncertainties.
Byung-Sik Lee und Joo Hyun Moon
Korea has developed advanced nuclear technologies, including those for future nuclear energy systems and the safe management of spent nuclear fuel, and is about to make a decision as to whether to make a massive investment in the development R&D for commercialization of them. There is no area large enough to accommodate all the development R&D-related facilities together at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to perform the development R&Ds. KAERI seeks solutions to the space problem, which includes the construction of a nuclear energy science complex (NESC). Gyeongju is one of the potential sites. This study estimated the ripple effects on the regional community if the NESC is to be formed in Gyeongju using inter-regional input-output analysis. The estimation shows that the ripple effects to the regional community of the formation of the NESC inGyeongju would be 1,086,633 billion Korean Won (KRW) for regional production inducement, 455,299 billion KRW for value-added inducement, and 9,592 persons for employment inducement.
Karl-Heinz Lux, Ralf Wolters and Juan Zhao
A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems – without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat-generating high-radioactive waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.
Ali Mansoor, Siraj-ul-Islam Ahmed, Inam-ul-Haq and Rustam Khan
Results of the analyses performed for fuel, moderator and void’s temperature feedback reactivity coefficients for the first high power core configuration of Pakistan Research Reactor – 1 (PARR-1) are summarized. For this purpose, a validated three dimensional model of PARR-1 core was developed and confirmed against the reference results for reactivity calculations. The “Program for Reactor In-Core Analysis using Diffusion Equation” (PRIDE) code was used for development of global (3-dimensional) model in conjunction with WIMSD4 for lattice cell modeling. Values for isothermal fuel, moderator and void’s temperature feedback reactivity coefficients have been calculated. Additionally, flux profiles for the fiveenergy groups were also generated.
In the course of the upcoming legal and organizational changes that concern radioactive disposal and waste disposal, the 6th Experts Meeting on Waste Disposal took place on 9 March 2017. Particular focus were the challenges faced by the industry to transfer the existing expertise in the new structures, the start of the “Project Site Selection” and to the developments in other countries.
Recent weeks have been tough for the world’s nuclear energy industry. The nuclear industry has seen setbacks before. And it is the nature of this inter-connected global industry to find itself in the international media spotlight when “bad news” strikes. The task for the industry now is to pick itself up and face the economic challenges head-on. As one English proverb notes, “fortune favours the brave”.
A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.