Emplacement Radiation Exposure Calculations for Generic Deep Geological Repositories
Retrofitting a Spent Fuel Pool Spray System
Cyber Security in Nuclear Power Plants
Validation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Nuclide Composition Data
Conflicting reports have emerged from Poland about plans for its first reactors. Professor Grzegorz Wrochna of the Polish National Centre for Nuclear Research says the programme is on track and a business model is expected soon. The previous government’s programme calls for 6 GW in two locations. The government recently published a strategy for responsible development which calls for the nuclear programme to be sped up. However, no capacity figures were included. The industry should not be bound by a rigid number. In time, maybe we will speak of 4 GW or 12 GW, but it will depend on market needs and financial possibilities. The biggest risks do not come from cancellation or public opinion. They come from delays.
The past twelve months in German nuclear energy policy have been characterised mainly by legislative clearing up work which has been pending since the decision for an accelerated phase-out of nuclear power in 2011. This applies particularly to the reorganisation of financing in nuclear waste management. The other major political work package was the amendment to the Site Selection Act. Our real challenge though is nuclear expertise. This is important for research, for industry but above all for the state itself. The question of expertise covers the whole range of scientific and technical knowledge relating to nuclear technology: basic nuclear research, reactor safety research, radiochemistry, radiological protection, nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture, to mention but a few examples.
Héctor Saurí Suárez, Bo Pang, Frank Becker and Volker Metz
In the operational phase of a deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste, the radiation field in the vicinity of a waste cask is influenced by the backscattered radiation of the surrounding walls of the emplacement drift. For a comparison of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in various host rocks, it is of interest to investigate the influence of the surrounding materials on the radiation field and the personal radiation exposure. In this generic study individual dosimetry of personnel involved in emplacement of casks with spent nuclear fuel in drifts in rock salt and in a clay formation was modelled.
The 15th German Atomic Energy Act Amendment has now passed the parliamentary legislative procedure with the decision of the Bundestag in the third reading of 30 March 2017. The publication in the Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt) is still pending. The background of the amendment is the addition to the Euratom safeguards directive adopted by the European Council in July 2014. This directive has to be implemented in the national regulations of the EURATOM Member States. However, since most of these supplements were already standard in German atomic law, the regulatory requirements for Germany were low. This is also explicitly stated in the statement to the act.
Christoph Hartmann and Zoran Vujic
Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krško Nuclear Power Plant’s Safety Upgrade Program, Krško Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000® plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.
Sébastien Champigny, Deeksha Gupta, Venesa Watson and Karl Waedt
Power generation increasingly relies on decentralised and interconnected computerised systems. Concepts like “Industrial Internet of Things” of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), and “Industry 4.0” find their way in this strategic industry. Risk of targeted exploits of errors and vulnerabilities increases with complexity, interconnectivity and decentralization. Inherently stringent security requirements and features make nuclear computerised applications and systems a benchmark for industrial counterparts seeking to hedge against those risks. Consequently, this contribution presents usual cyber security regulations and practices for nuclear power plants. It shows how nuclear cyber security can be ported and used in an industrial context to protect critical infrastructures against cyber-attacks and industrial espionage.
Man Cheol Kim
Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.
Qi Shi, Zhou Tao, Muhammad Ali Shahzad, Li Yu and Jiang Guangming
It is common to base the design of passive systems on the natural laws of physics, such as gravity, heat conduction, inertia. For AP1000, a generation-III reactor, such systems have an inherent safety associated with them due to the simplicity of their structures. However, there is a fairly large amount of uncertainty in the operating conditions of these passive safety systems. In some cases, a small deviation in the design or operating conditions can affect the function of the system. The reliability of the passive residual heat removal is analysed.
Kyung Ho Nam and Sang Nyung Kim
After the Fukushima accident, increasing interest has been raised in passive safety systems that maintain the integrity of the containment building. To improve the reliability and safety of nuclear power plants, long-term passive cooling concepts have been developed for advanced reactors. In a previous study, the proposed design was based on an ordinary cylindrical Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon (TPCT). The exact assembly size and number of TPCTs should be elaborated upon through accurate calculations based on experiments. While the ultimate goal is to propose an effective MPHP design for the PCCS and experimentally verify its performance, a TPCT assembly that was manufactured based on the conceptual design in this paper was tested.
Yuan Jiandong, Zhang Bin, Wang Fengfeng, Wan Yuqin, Sun Guozhen, Yao Junjie, Zhang Juihui and He Yuan
As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.
Foratom, the Brussels based trade association for the nuclear industry in Europe, published a position paper on the European Commission’s ‘Clean Energy for All Europeans’ package of EU legislative proposals. The proposals seek to improve the functioning of the energy market and ensure all energy technologies can compete on a level-playing field without jeopardising climate and energy targets. If Europe seeks to have a coherent and inclusive energy policy, which encompasses all lowcarbon contributors, nuclear must be allowed a place at the policy table.