_Security Controls for Nuclear Safety
_Safety Enhacement in Operation of Czech VVER Units
_Underwater Robotics in Nuclear Power Plants
_The New CASTOR* Geo
_Nuclear Newcomer Turkey and Japan Show the Way Ahead
A US federal advisory panel recently took a step in what could be a lengthy process to determine if a deep geological nuclear waste repository should finally be built at Yucca Mountain, a project that has been on the drawing board since the 1970s at a cost of around $ 12 bn (€ 9.7 bn).
Deeksha Gupta, Karl Waedt and Yuan Gao
The current Draft Nuclear IEC 63096 New Work Item Proposal (NWIP), a new downstream standard of IEC 62645, distinguishes between preventive, detective and corrective security controls. The focus of this paper is on resilient detective cybersecurity controls that are needed especially for high security degrees in the context of Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs). The approach is fully in line with Nuclear IEC 62859 that provides requirements on coordinating safety and cybersecurity. The recommendations on separating selected detective security controls from the process control software can be achieved by avoiding an increased complexity and the possibility of retroactions of security measures on safety related functionality.
With the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union there will be the beginning of a new chapter in history of data protection. With the beginning of May 25, 2018 we will have harmonized regulations in the European Union. With penalties up to 20 million euros and imprisonment up to 3 years, the data protection will have a high priority in future. In this essay we present the subject-matter and objectives, material and territorial scope and the principles relating to processing of personal data. The GDPR presents a sustainable change in data protection. For years to come, this will lay the foundation for trust in data protection in Europe.
Last summer, a radiation protection law was launched for the first time in Germany. The Federal Government was obliged to implement the revised version of the basic European radiation protection Directive and emphasised the importance of radiation protection by ranking it into a law. This law now has to be filled with “life” at the level of ordinances, so that it can be applied in practice. The deadline for implementing the Directive always expired on 6 February 2018.
J. Duspiva, E. Hofmann, J. Holy, P. Kral and M. Patrik
A continuous process of a safety enhancement of VVER units in the Czech Republic is briefly described including a presentation of important milestones and examples of particular safety measures already implemented. A special attention is given to the evaluation and implementation of safety measures following stress tests recommendations and R&D activities supporting this process. As examples an implementation of the “design extension condition without core melt” concept and various activities related to severe accident mitigation strategies are presented in the more detailed way.
Gunnar Fenzel, Dr. Dietmar Nieder and Alexandra Sykora
Cutting and packing of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is one important step during decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is the objective of the research project Automated Cutting of Reactor Pressure Vessels Internals Using Underwater-Robotics (AZURo) to (semi-) automate frequently repeated activities by an underwater robot.
This joint research project was sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). It was executed together with Fraunhofer-Einrichtung für Gießerei-, Composite- und Verarbeitungstechnik IGCV. The project AZURo started in 2012 and was finished in 2016.
The operation and the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear power plants is a technical challenge. It must be fully documented. A helpful tool for operation and dismantling is the so-called spatial atlas. The atlas provides the rooms in the nuclear power plants in high-resolution 360° HDR images and technical circumstances resulting therefrom may be deduced.
Pierre Kockerols, Hans Günther Schneider and Daniela Santopolo
The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an industrial activity that is expected to grow worldwide, creating many attractive career opportunities. European industry has acquired know-how and today Europe can position itself at the top level in the world decommissioning market. However, in view of the expected expansion of the activities, efforts are necessary to share and enhance the underpinning knowledge, skills and competences and to ensure the availability of the necessary workforce in the future. JRC and partners in the EU decommissioning field have launched a project to consolidate and improve existing training programmes. The joint training programme project is called ‘ELINDER’ (European Learning Initiatives for Nuclear Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation) and is implemented from 2018 onwards.
Linus Bettermann and Roland Hüggenberg
Dry interim storage has become a common solution for the disposal of spent fuel in recent years worldwide. However, in particular the complete defueling of NPP prior to decommissioning and dismantling will dramatically increase the demand especially for non-standard fuel. Here the new dry storage system by GNS is presented for international markets with its capability to also store MOX and damaged spent fuel. The new CASTOR® geo cask system is a product line based on standardized modules and components featuring different cask dimensions and basket designs.
Johannes Schubert, Anton Philipp Anthofer and Max Schreier
The expected volume of radioactive waste from dismantling of nuclear facilities in the forthcoming scope and the opening of the Konrad disposal requires an optimised planning of the removal of radioactive waste. For the treatment of radioactive raw waste, with negligible heat generation, different conditioning processes are available. Thereby different waste volumes and masses with different properties can result even from the same raw waste. An optimisation can be realised. The complex process can be carried out by a calculation tool.
Joachim Heierli, Helmut Hirsch and Bruno Baltes
The objective of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep geological formations is to isolate the radionuclides from the accessible biosphere for a sufficient period of time. To achieve this, both the functionality and the integrity of the disposal system must be assured under ambient conditions that
depend both on the geological environment and on engineering choices taken in the planning of the facility. In particular, the amplitude of the transient temperature increase caused by the release of nuclear decay heat in the disposal area is scalable through design strategies and thermal dimensioning.
H. Breitkreutz, J. Shi, R. Jungwirth, T. Zweifel, H.-Y. Chiang and W. Petry
Irradiation with heavy ions from an accelerator source is an increasingly often used tool to quickly reproduce and simulate certain effects of in-pile irradiation tests, avoiding the complexity and high costs of handling highly radioactive samples. At the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium (MLL) of the Technische Universität München (TUM), swift heavy ions have been applied in the development of Uranium-Molybdenum (UMo) based research reactor fuels for more than 10 years. Since then, the technique has been advanced from feasibility over qualitative analysis to quantitative prediction, including fission gas implantation.
Around 20 years ago there was one story that cropped up again and again: “Forget that – it will never happen, they’ve been talking about it for years.” The subject was Turkey and its desire to build the country’s first nuclear power plant. But today, first safety-related concrete was poured and finally marked the start of construction of Turkey´s first nuclear power plant in Akkuyu, with four units planned. There was progress too on the international nuclear front from Japan, where KEPCO confirmed the restart of the third unit of its Ohi nuclear power plant.